Volume 11, Issue 1 (spring 2007)                   jwss 2007, 11(1): 41-54 | Back to browse issues page

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E. Khadivi Borujeni, F. Nourbakhsh, M. Afyuni, H. Shariatmadari. Forms of Pb, Ni and Cd in a Sewage Sludge - treated Calcareous Soil . jwss 2007; 11 (1) :41-54
URL: http://jstnar.iut.ac.ir/article-1-645-en.html
Abstract:   (25838 Views)
Application of sewage sludge on the farmland as a source of crop nutrient had recently received considerable attention. Some management practices may be required to control the accumulation of toxic elements including Pb, Ni and Cd. Sequential extraction gives useful information on plant bioavailability of the elements. The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative and residual effects of sewage sludge application on the chemical forms and mobility factor of Pb, Ni and Cd. Zero, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge were applied for 1, 2 and 3 consecutive years in a split plot design, with three replications. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm at the end of the third year of application. Different chemical forms of Pb, Ni and Cd were measured. Results revealed that the soluble form (SOL) of Ni and Cd increased whereas Pb soluble form decreased with increasing levels and years of application. Exchangeable (EXC), carbonate (CAR) and organic (ORG) forms of the three elements increased as levels and years of application increased. Occluded (OCC) form decreased for Pb, Ni and increased for Cd. Residual form (RES) of Pb increased while that of Ni and Cd decreased. A gereral increase was observed for available (DTPA-extractable) concentration of Pb, Ni and Cd. Relative distributions of different chemical forms were in the following order: Pb: OCC > RES> ORG> CAR> EXC> SOL, Ni: RES> ORG> OCC> CAR>EXC> SOL and Cd: OCC> CAR> RES> ORG> EXC> SOL. The comparison of different forms of the metals showed the following orders: soluble Ni>Pb>Cd, exchangeable, carbonate and occluded Pb>Ni> Cd, organic and residual Ni> Pb>cd. Increasing the available (DTPA-extractable) concentration of the elements in such a calcareous soil showed that consecutive application of sewage sludge may increase the available (DTPA-extractable) concentration beyond critical levels. A significant corretation was observed between organic form and available (DTPA-extractable) concentration of the elements.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Ggeneral
Received: 2008/01/9 | Published: 2007/04/15

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