Volume 26, Issue 4 (Winiter 2023)                   jwss 2023, 26(4): 319-334 | Back to browse issues page


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Ghazvinian H, Karami H. Effect of Rainfall Intensity and Slope at the Beginning of Sandy Loam Soil Runoff using Rain Simulator (Case Study: Semnan City). jwss 2023; 26 (4) :319-334
URL: http://jstnar.iut.ac.ir/article-1-4274-en.html
Semnan University , Hkarami@semnan.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1363 Views)
Runoff is formed by spending some time after rain and significantly depends on rainfall intensity, soil moisture, and slope. One of the fundamental questions about runoff is the time that it starts to create. In this research, the runoff start time in sandy loam soil was evaluated experimentally under different conditions using a precipitation simulator machine. The rainfall intensity parameters of (60, 80, and 100 millimeters per hour) and the slope of (0 and 5 percent) were investigated. The rainfall was created in the three soil treatment types completely dry (Sdry), the dry soil that had been saturated 24 hours before the test (S24hrlag), and the dry soil that had been saturated 48 hours before the test (S48hrlag). Eighteen tests were conducted on this soil. At the end of each test, the soil moisture was measured. The experimental results were compared with the numerical model of Green-Ampt. According to the Kendall and Spearman correlation test results, as the rainfall be intense, the start time of the runoff is lower. Also, the runoff starts at a faster time in the slope of 5 percent for every three types of soil. Also, the results of starting time of the runoff in the soil with a delay of 48 hours in the rain compared to the soil with a delay of 24 hours in the rain are closer in all of the rainfall intensity and slopes compared to the case of dry soil. Therefore, in the experiments related to a delay of 24 hours, the time of the start of runoff decreases. While in tests with a delay of 48 hours, it was not much different from completely dry soil. Also, the Green-Ampt results are close to the experimental results (R2=0.9775), and the maximum difference between the two mentioned methods is 4.8 minutes. Therefore, it can be used with the Green-Ampt method to calculate the start time of runoff in sandy loam soil in different states of rainfall intensity and bed slope.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Ggeneral
Received: 2022/06/2 | Accepted: 2022/08/29 | Published: 2023/03/1

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